Manoli Moriaty

Sound Movement Performance

Scratching, past and future.

This page contains an attempt to compile a comprehensive list of academic publications that focus significantly on turntablism and controllerism. Originally published in the edited volume Collaboration, Engagement and Tradition in Contemporary and Electronic Music: NoiseFloor Perspectives, this webpage is an ongoing addendum to the printed list.

The list is organised in separate tables according to publication format, which includes, books (edited volumes and monographs), chapters in edited volumes, journal articles, conference proceedings papers, postgraduate theses (MA, MSc, PhD), and a small selection of non-peer-reviewed media, educational resources, and supplementary articles that are considered seminal in the history of turntablism.

The articles have also been categorised according to the theme and methodology of their research on turntablism/ controllerism. This thematic classification identified five broad categories, each denoted by a letter at the end of each row:

  • Ethnography
  • Composition & Performance
  • New Instruments
  • Transcription & notation
  • Pedagogy

Feel free to contact me with comments on the list, and any suggestions for alterations and additional items. I hope this list is a useful tool for scholars and fans on turntablism, that will continue to grow as new articles are published and older ones are discovered.

Book publications

YearAuthor(s)TitlePublisherResearch type
2004Neal FormanThat’s the Joint: The Hip Hop Studies ReaderRoutledgeE
2004Paul D. MillerRhythm ScienceMIT PressE
2008Paul D. MillerSound Unbound: Sampling Digital Music and CultureMIT PressE/C
2007Stephen WebberDJ Skills: The Essential Guide to Mixing and ScratchingFocal PressC
2010Bill Brewster,
Frank Broughton
The Record Players: Dj RevolutionariesBlack Cat, Grove PressE
2010Mark KatzCapturing Sound: How Technology Has Changed MusicUniversity of California PressE
2012Mark KatzGroove Music: The Art and Culture of the Hip-Hop DJOxford University PressE/C
2012Tara BrabazonPopular Music: Topic, Trends & TrajectoriesSAGEE
2013Bernardo Alexander Attias, Anna Gavanas,
Hillegonda C. Rietveld
DJ Culture in the Mix: Power, Technology, and Social Change in Electronic Dance MusicBloomsburyE
2013Sophy SmithHip-Hop Turntablism, Creativity and CollaborationAshgateE/C
2016André SiroisHip Hop DJs and the Evolution of Technology:
Cultural Exchange, Innovation, and Democratization
Peter LangE
2020Thom HolmesElectronic and Experimental Music: Technology, Music, and Culture (6th Edition)RoutledgeE
2022Michael Anthony D’ErricoPush: Software Design and the Cultural Politics of Music ProductionOxford University PressC
2022Mark V. CampbellAfrosonic LifeBloomsbury AcademicE
2022Tom Perchard,
Stephen Graham,
Tim Rutherford-Johnson,
Holly Rogers
Twentieth-Century Music in the West: An IntroductionCambridge University PressE
2022Roy ChristopherBoogie Down Predictions: Hip-Hop, Time, and AfrofuturismMIT PressE

Book chapters

YearAuthor(s)TitleBook/editor(s)Research type
2004John OswaldBettered by the Borrower: The Ethics of Musical DebtAudio Culture, Readings in Modern Music, Eds. Christoph Cox & Daniel WarnerE
2011Nick CollinsElectronicaThe Oxford handbook of computer music-Oxford University Press, Ed. Roger T. DeanE
2011Atau TanakaSensor-Based Musical Instruments and Interactive MusicThe Oxford handbook of computer music-Oxford University Press, Ed. Roger T. DeanC
2011Garth PaineGesture Morphology in Laptop Music PerformanceThe Oxford handbook of computer music-Oxford University Press, Ed. Roger T. DeanC
2015Kjetil Falkenberg HansenDJs and TurntablismThe Cambridge Companion to Hip Hop, Ed. Justin A. WilliamsC
2015Michael Anthony D’ErricoOff the grid: instrumental hip-hop and experimentalism after the golden ageThe Cambridge Companion to Hip Hop, Ed. Justin A. WilliamsC
2016Hillegonda C. RietveldAuthenticity and liveness in digital DJ performanceMusicians and their Audiences: Performance, Speech and Mediation. Eds. Ioannis Tsioulakis & Elina Hytönen-Ng, 123-33C
2016Mark V. CampbellControl This! Digital Improvisation and PedagogyImprovisation and Music Education: Beyond the Classroom, Eds. Ajau Heble & Mark LaveP
2019Mark KatzAuthorship in the Age of Configurable MusicRethinking American Music, Eds. Tara Browner & Thomas L. RiisE
2022Manoli MoriatyCollective Controllerism: A Non-Musician’s Perspective of Interactive Dance as Controllerist PracticeDesigning Interactions for Music and Sound, Ed. Michael Filimowicz, 30-64C

Journal articles

YearAuthor(s)TitleJournalResearch Type
1996Miles WhiteThe Phonograph Turntable and Performance Practice in Hip Hop MusicEthnomusicology OnLine (2)C
2000Sophy SmithCompositional strategies of the hip-hop turntablistOrganised Sound 5(2): 75-79C
2002Kjetil Falkenberg HansenThe Basics of ScratchingJournal of New Music Research, 31(4): 357-65C
2003Fumikazu TaniguchiA Musical Analysis of DJ Performances in TurntablismPopular Music Studies 7:15-34C
2004Juliana SnapperScratching the surface: Spinning time and identity in hip-hop turntablismEuropean Journal of Cultural Studies, 7(1): 9-25Ε
2005Georgina BornOn Musical Mediation: Ontology, Technology and
Twentieth Century Music 2(1): 7-36E
2006Bill D. HermanScratching Out Authorship: Representations of the Electronic Music DJ at the Turn of the 21st CenturyPopular Communication 4(1): 21-38E
2006Felicia M. MiyakawaTurntablature: Notation, Legitimization, and the Art of the Hip-hop DJAmerican Music , Spring 2007 25(1): 81-105T
2007Marta CiechanTurntablism: Music for Limited AudiencesCzas Kultury 4-5 (XXIII): 52-65E
2007Anthony Sze-Fai ShiuStyl(us): Asian North America, Turntablism, RelationCR: The New Centennial Review 7(1): 81-106E
2007Sophy SmithThe process of ‘collective creation’ in the composition of UK hip-hop turntable team routinesOrganised Sound 12(1): 79-87C
2008Tim LawrenceDisco Madness: Walter Gibbons and the Legacy of Turntablism and RemixologyJournal of Popular Music Studies 20(3): 276-329E/C
2008Charles FairchildThe medium and materials of popular music: ‘Hound Dog’, turntablism and muzak as situated musical practicesPopular Music 27(1): 99-116E
2009Elonda ClayTwo turntables and a microphone: Turntablism, ritual and implicit religionCulture and Religion 10(1): 23-38E
2010Miriama YoungScratch and Mix: Sampling the Human Voice in the
Metaphorical Phonograph
Contemporary Music Review, 29(3): 337-45E
2010Kjetil Falkenberg Hansen, Roberto BresinThe Skipproof Virtual Turntable for High-Level Control of ScratchingComputer Music Journal 34(2): 39–50N
2011Jesse StewartMusic and Memory in KeepintimeMUSICultures 38(1): 159-72E
2011Bernando Alexander AttiasMeditations on the Death of VinylDancecult 3(1)E
2011Tobias C. Van Veen, Bernando Alexander AttiasOff the Record: Turntablism and Controllerism in the 21st Century (Part 1)Dancecult 3(1)E/C
2011Kath O’DonnellTurntables of DoomDancecult 3(1)E
2011Nilesh ChampaneriThe Hip Hop Turntablist (DJ)National Association of Music Educators 33: 17-18E
2011Kjetil Falkenberg Hansen, Marco Fabiano, Roberto BresinAnalysis of the Acoustics and Playing Strategies of Turntable ScratchingActa Acustica united with Acustica 97(2): 303-14C
2012Tobias C. Van Veen, Bernando Alexander AttiasOff the Record: Turntablism and Controllerism in the 21st Century (Part 2)Dancecult 4(1)E/C
2012Paul ThompsonAn empirical study into the learning practices and enculturation of DJs, turntablists, hip hop and dance music producersJournal of Music, Technology & Education 5(1): 43-58P
2013Alinka E Greasley & Helen M PriorMixtapes and turntablism: DJs’ perspectives on musical shapeEmpirical Musicology Review 8(1): 23-43C
2013Kjetil Falkenberg HansenExpressivity and musical shape in turntablism: Response to Greasley and PriorEmpirical Musicology Review 8(1): 44-47C
2013Ed MontanoResponse to Alinka E. Greasley & Helen M. Prior: Mixtapes and turntablism: DJs’ perspectives on musical shapeEmpirical Musicology Review 8(1): 48-52C
2013Tobias C. Van VeenVessels of Transfer: Allegories of Afrofuturism in Jeff Mills and Janelle MonáeDancecult 5(2): 7-41E
2013Paul Vandemast-BellRethinking Live Electronic Music: A DJ PerspectiveContemporary Music Review 32(2-3): 239-48C
2013Christopher EdminPursuing the Pedagogical Potential of the Pillars of Hip-hop through SciencemindednessInternational Journal of Critical Pedagogy 4(3): 83-99P
2013Noriko ManabeRepresenting Japan: ‘national’ style among Japanese hip-hop DJsPopular Music 32(1): 35-50E
2014Lorien R. HunterTalking Across the Tables: A Conversation with Dr. Mark V. CampbellSpectator 34:1 (Spring 2014): 44-50E
2014Mark V. CampbellEverything’s Connected: A Relationality Remix, A PraxisThe CLR James Journal 20(1-2): 97-114E
2014Mark V. CampbellScratch, Look & Listen: Improvisatory Poetics and Digital DJ InterfacesCritical Studies in Improvisation 10(1)E
2015Paul Thompson, Stevenson AlexExploring the experiences, perceptions and reflections of popular electronic musicians at UK higher education institutionsJournal of Music, Technology & Education 8(2): 199-217P
2016Douglas MacCutcheon, Alinka E. Greasley, Mark T. ElliottInvestigating the Value of DJ Performance for Contemporary Music Education and Sensorimotor Synchronisation (SMS) AbilitiesDancecult 8(1): 46-72P
2017Kyesha Jennings, Emery PetchauerTeaching in the Mix: Turntablism, DJ Aesthetics and African American LiteratureChanging English 24(2): 216-28P
2018Chris KieferLuuma, Between Code and Controllerism.pdfDancecult 10(1)N
2018Victor Del HierroDJs, Playlists, and Community: Imagining Communication Design through Hip HopCommunication Design Quarterly 7(2): 28-39E*
2019Rebekah Farrugia, Thomas SwissTracking the DJs: Vinyl Records, Work, and the Debate over New TechnologiesJournal of Popular Music Studies 31(1): 30-44C
2020Jean d’AspremontTurntablism in the History of International LawJournal of the History of International Law 22(2-3): 472-96E*
2021Rhythy QuinEast meets West: Investigating the state of DJing culture and turntablism pedagogy in ChinaInternational Journal of Music Education 39(3): 327-39P
2022Richard ElliotThe Most Annoying Noise of All TimeAustralian Humanities Review 70E
2022Luigi MarinoNew Technologies, Old Behaviours: Electronic media and electronic music improvisors in Europe at the turn of the millenniumOrganised Sound 27(2): 131-43E
2023Bradley SmithTurntablism meets classicalMusic Teacher 102(7)P

Conference proceedings

YearAuthor(s)TitleConferenceResearch Type
2003Mat C. Hans,
Mark T. Smith
A Wearable Networked MP3 Player and “Turntable” for Collaborative Scratching7th IEEE International Symposium on Wearable Computers (ISWC’03)N
2003Kjetil Falkenberg Hansen,
Roberto Bresin
Analysis of a Genuine Scratch PerformanceInternational Gesture Workshop 2003, pp. 519–528C
2003Kjetil Falkenberg Hansen,
Roberto Bresin
Dj Scratching Performance Techniques: Analysis And SynthesisProceedings of the Stockholm Music Acoustics Conference, August 6-9, 2003 (SMAC 03), Stockholm, Sweden, pp. 693-6C/N
2003Timothy Beamish,
Kees van den Doel,
Karon MacLean,
Sidney Fels
D’groove: A Haptic Turntable For Digital Audio Control2003 International Conference on Auditory Display, Boston, MA, USA, 6-9 July 2003N
2003Tim Beamish,
Karon MacLean,
Sidney Fels
Designing the Haptic Turntable for Musical ControlHAPTICS 2003, International Symposium on Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environment and Teleoperator Systems, Los Angeles, USA 2003N
2003Tue Haste AndersenMixxx: Towards Novel DJ InterfacesConference on New Interfaces for Musical Expression (NIME03), Montreal, CanadaC/N
2004Timothy Beamish, Karon Maclean, Sidney FelsManipulating Music: Multimodal Interaction for DJsSIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, pp.327–34C/N
2004Takuro Mizuta LippitRealtime Sampling System for the Turntablist Version 2: 16padjoystickcontroller, pp.211-212Conference on New Interfaces for Musical Expression (NIME04), Hamamatsu, JapanN
2004Gideon D’ArcangeloRecycling Music, Answering Back: Toward an Oral Tradition of Electronic Music, pp.55-58C
2006Kjetil Falkenberg Hansen,
Roberto Bresin
Mapping strategies in DJ scratchingConference on New Interfaces for Musical Expression (NIME06), Paris FranceC
2006Takuro Mizuta LippitTurntable Music in the Digital Era: Designing Alternative Tools for New Turntable ExpressionC
2007Nicolas Villar,
Hans Gellersen,
Matt Jervis,
Alexander Lang
The ColorDex DJ System: A New Interface for Live Music MixingConference on New Interfaces for Musical Expression (NIME07), New York, USAN
2007Andreas Pabst, Roger WalkAugmenting a rugged standard DJ turntable with a tangible interface for music browsing and playback manipulation3rd IET International Conference on Intelligent Environments, Ulm, 2007, pp. 533-5N
2007Kjetil Falkenberg Hansen,
Marcos Alonso,
Smilen Dimitrov
Combining dj scratching, tangible interfaces and a physics-based model of friction soundsInternational Computer Music Conference 2007, pp. 45-48N
2007Kentaro FukuchiMulti-track Scratch Player On A Multi-Touch Sensing DeviceEntertainment Computing – ICEC 2007, 6th International Conference, Shanghai, China, September 15-17, 2007N
2008Kjetil Falkenberg Hansen,
Marcos Alonso
More DJ techniques on the reactableConference on New Interfaces for Musical Expression (NIME08) Genova, ItalyN
2009Nicholas Gillian, Sile O’Modhrain, Georg EsslScratch-Off: A gesture based mobile music game with tactile feedbackConference on New Interfaces for Musical Expression (NIME09) Pittsburgh, PAN
2009Yutaka Tomibayashi, Yoshinari Takegawa, Tsutomu Terada, Masahiko TsukamotoWearable DJ system: A new motion-controlled DJ systemInternational Conference on Advances in Computer Entertainment Technology, ACE 2009, Athens, GreeceN
2009Karen SnellTurntablism: A Vehicle for Connecting Community and School Music LearningInternational Symposium on the Sociology of Music Education, 5-9 June 2009, University of Limerick, IrelandP
2010Eoin SmithElectronic Dance Music and Academic Music: Genre, Culture and TurntablesSound, Sight, Space and Play 2010, De Montfort UniversityE
2011Nicholas J. Bryan, Ge WangTwo Turntables and a Mobile PhoneConference on New Interfaces for Musical Expression (NIME) 2011, Oslo, NorwayN
2011Erika Donald, Ben Duinker, Eliot BrittonDesigning the EP trio: Instrument identities, control and performance practice in an electronic chamber music ensembleC
2012Florian Heller, Jan BorchersDiskPlay: in-track navigation on turntablesSIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, May 2012, pp.1829-32N
2012Ståle A. Skogstad,
Kristian Nymoen,
Yago de Quay,
Alexander Refsum
Developing the Dance Jockey System for Musical Interaction with the Xsens MVN SuitConference on New Interfaces for Musical Expression (NIME) 2012, University of Michigan, Ann ArborN
2014Florian Heller, Jan BorchersVisualizing Song Structure on Timecode VinylsInternational Conference on New Interfaces for Musical Expression NIME14, Goldsmiths, University London, UKN
2015Alexander Förstel, Sarah-Indriyati Hardjowirogo, Hauke EgermannThe Actions that Make a Musical Instrument: Exploring Club-DJing as an Instrumental Practice11th International Symposium on CMMR, Plymouth, UK, June 16-19, 2015, pp. 762-9C
2016Enrique TomásPolitics of Musical Interfaces: Ideologies and Digital DisenchantmentFirst International Conference on Interface Politics 2016, pp.755-66E
2016Alexander Sonnenfeld & Kjetil FalkenbergS-Notation: A Complete Musical Notation System For Scratching And Sample Music Derived From “Theory Of Motions”International Conference on Technologies for Music Notation and Representation – TENOR2016, Anglia Ruskin University, pp. 50-7N


YearAuthorTitleUniversity/degreeResearch Type
2002Leif GustavsonZine Writing, Graffiti, And Turntablism: The Creative Practices Of Three YouthUniversity of Pennsylvania, PhDE
2003Timothy Mark Edward BeamishD’groove – A Novel Digital Haptic Turntable For Music ControlUniversity Of British Columbia, MScC/N
2006Sophy SmithThe Compositional Processes of UK Hip-Hop Turntable TeamsDe Montfort University, PhDC/T
2008Matthew James WrightNavigating Time: A Portfolio of CompositionsGoldsmiths, University of London, PhDC
2009Paul BellInterrogating the Live: A DJ PerspectiveNewcastle University, PhDC
2010Kjetil Falkenberg HansenThe acoustics and performance of DJ scratchingKTH Royal Institute of Technology, PhDC/N
2011André SiroisScratching the Digital Itch: A Political Economy of The Hip Hop DJ and the Relationship Between Culture, Industry, and TechnologyUniversity of Oregon, PhDE
2013Alex H. KotchComposers on the DecksDuke University, PhDC/E
2013William R. NorthlichDiY Dynamic: Experimental Electronic Music And The Underground In The San Francisco Bay AreaWesleyan University, MAE/C
2014Daniel Marc BiedermanThe Turntable as a Musical Instrument and the Emergence of the Concert TurntablistUniversity of Sydney, MAC
2015Megan RossContinuing The Quest For Legitimacy: The Institutionalization Of Hip-Hop Djing EducationUniversity of North Carolina, MAP
2016Paul G NatarajYou Sound Like A Broken Record: A practice led interrogation of the ontological resonances of vinyl record cultureUniversity of Sussex, PhDC
2016Bjørnar Ersland SandvikOn The Significance of Interface Design – A Study of Digital Samplers In Two ErasUniversity of Oslo, MAC
2016Michael Anthony D’ErricoInterface Aesthetics: Sound, Software, and the Ecology of Digital Audio ProductionUniversity of California, PhDE/C
2016William James BaldryTurntablist Performance Practice: Commentary in support of portfolio of recorded performancesUniversity of Leeds, PhDC
2016Mariam RezaeiCommentary on the Portfolio of Compositions submitted for the degree of PhD in Music CompositionUniversity of Durham, PhDC
2016Kate R. LevittTurning the Tables: Nightlife, DJing, and the Rise of Digital DJ TechnologiesUniversity of California, PhDE
2017Karin WeissenbrunnerExperimental Turntablism: Live Performances with Second Hand Technology – Analysis and Methodological ConsiderationsCity, University of London, PhDE/C
2017Guillermo de Llera BlanesControllers as Musical Instruments, Controllerism as Musical Practice – Practices of a new 21st Century musical cultureUniversidade NOVA de Lisboa, MAE
2020Takuro Mizuta LippitListening with Hands: The Instrumental Impulse and Invisible Transformation in TurntablismDe Montfort University, PhDC/N
2021Steven WalkerThe Cyclical, Reciprocal Relationship Between Funk Drumming and the Hip-Hop TechnologistUniversity of Salford, PhDC

Media, resources, & non-peer reviewed publications

YearAuthor(s)TitlePublisher/locationResearch Type
1984Dick FontaineBeat This: A Hip-Hop HistoryBBCE
1997John CarluccioBattle Sounds Hip-Hop DJ DocumentaryIndependentE
1999Jason Bellmont (DJ Radar)Notation for “Antimatter”OM RecordsT
2000John Carluccio
Ethan Imboden
Raymond Pirtle
TTM – Turntablist Transcription Methodology
2000Richard Quitevis (DJ QBert)Skratchcon 2000Thud RumbleE
2000Brian CrossKeepintime: Talking Drums and Whispering VinylMochillaE
2001Doug PrayScratchPalm PicturesE
2003Laurent BurteScratch graphique : Une recherche typographique au plus profond du sonPyramyd éditionsT
2004Timothy Mark Edward BeamishDJ Taxonomy
2016Alexander SonnenfeldTheory of Motions 1.0Self publishedT